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Old 07-03-2009, 01:18 PM   #11
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Isn't it funny how cities create these tiny little 12 acre parks that they think will sustain wildlife then run around spraying, mowing at the worst possible times for no apparent reason, and then squalk about a guy who dumps some old carpet or something that is totally benign and possible even creating additional habitat. I guess when your experience with wildlife is seeing a couple of birds at a golf course these are the kind of conclusions one usually comes to. I can only hope we begin to take science seriously in this country. I'd be fine with spraying based on real risk of disease incidence and I am sure that happens at times when it's a good call, but I worry about indiscriminate spraying just for the sake of spraying or the goal of lifeless evenings just so someone can grill out and never worry about hearing a buzzing noise.
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Old 07-03-2009, 02:16 PM   #12
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Does anyone have research that:

1) shows the relationship between permethrin spraying and West Nile?


2) shows the relationship between permethrin spraying and wildlife?
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Old 07-03-2009, 02:48 PM   #13
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Wildlife managers are concerned that insecticides used to control mosquitoes could suppress invertebrates on which wildlife feed. We assessed whether ultra-low volume (ULV) applications of pyrethrin, permethrin, and malathion for control of adult mosquitoes reduced macroinvertebrate abundance and biomass or killed mosquitofish in seasonal wetlands in California. Pyrethrin was applied over 3 seasonal wetlands on Sutter National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), and malathion or permethrin were each applied over 2 seasonal wetlands on the Colusa NWR. Three control wetlands were used per site. We measured aquatic macroinvertebrate abundance and biomass before and after insecticide application and compared the survival of mosquito larvae held in sentinel cages. At Colusa, we also used mosquitofish as sentinels, caged adult mosquitoes over the wetlands to test for pesticide efficacy and drift, and sampled night-flying insects using ultraviolet light traps. Results showed no detectable reductions in the abundance or biomass of aquatic macroinvertebrates in treated wetlands. Larval mosquitoes showed high survival in all areas. All adult mosquitoes died when caged over wetlands treated with malathion or permethrin, but all survived in controls. All mosquitofish survived. Flying insect abundance decreased after insecticide application in both treated and control wetlands but rebounded in 48 h. Results indicated that ULV applications of these insecticides to control adult mosquitoes are unlikely to have substantial effects on the aquatic insects or fish in seasonal wetlands.
Jensen, T. Lawler, S. & Dritz, D. (1999). Effects of ultra-low volume pyrethrin, malathion, and permethrin on nontarget invertebrates, sentinel mosquitoes, and mosquitofish in seasonally impounded wetlands. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association, 15.

I didn't read the article just the abstract but if I am interpreting what I read correctly, unless they spray every 48 hours it sounds like this approach alone would do little more than pacify the public that they are doing something. I don't know how those levels correlate with what is typically used though.
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Old 07-03-2009, 02:56 PM   #14
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Cholinesterase activity and the protein contents of
kidney and liver decreased after cypermethrin and
permethrin treatment (0.1% and 1%). Custer et al.
(1985) described how after parathion spraying brain
cholinesterase activity reduced up to 7%, 40%, 54% and
57% in blackbirds, pheasants, mice and coots
respectively. Fairbrother et al. (1989) reported that 12 h
after the second application of azinphos-methyl, plasma
ChE levels in adult tree swallows were significantly
inhibited, by 41%, as compared to the controls. ChE
activity in another group of adult swallows dropped by
21% and 19% following the first and second sprayings......
Quote:

In the present
research cypermethrin and permethrin were applied to
the frog body directly (0.1% and 1% conc.), and both
compounds reduced cholinesterase activity in the kidney
up to 36% and 35% after cypermethrin and 35% and
6.76% after permethrin treatment, whereas in the liver
the percentage inhibition was 52% and 47% after
cypermethrin treatment while in the case of permethrin
29% and 23% decreases were noted. These results
appear to be in agreement with previous observations.
Effect of Cypermethrin and Permethrin on Cholinesterase Activity.
This appears to have been published as some obscure government report and the personel are associated with the Department of Zoology, University of Karachi, whatever that is lol. Just posted it because I found it but this is not usually my first choice in sources.


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Old 07-03-2009, 03:09 PM   #15
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Based on the best available information, the Agency makes a May Affect and Likely to
Adversely Affect (LAA) determination for the CRLF, CCR, SFGS, SMHM, and BCB
from the use of permethrin.
This one is available online
http://www.epa.gov/espp/litstatus/effects/redleg-frog/permethrin/determination.pdf
Risks of Permethrin Use to the Federally
Threatened California Red-legged Frog
(Rana aurora draytonii) and Bay Checkerspot
Butterfly (Euphydryas editha bayensis),
and the Federally Endangered California Clapper
Rail (Rallus longirostris obsoletus), Salt Marsh
Harvest Mouse (Reithrodontomys raviventris), and
San Francisco Garter Snake (Thamnophis sirtalis
tetrataenia)

It's an epa metanalysis of available literature and is not light reading than can be done in a few minutes.
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Old 07-04-2009, 07:57 AM   #16
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As a (now retired) entomologist who spent much of his career involved in pest management/surveillance, my personal observation is that there is a tremendous amount of misinformation and consequently unwarranted fear/apprehension on the subject of pest control in general. Please remember that it can be quite misleading to apply laboratory findings on potential risks of chemical exposure to actual field conditions. I remain firmly convinced that one faces far greater health risks from exposure to automobile exhaust, tobacco smoke, and factory emissions than from any spray program.
That aside, I also feel that large-scale spray programs should be limited to instances where there is a demonstrable risk to public health from a vector-borne disease. Too many times, IMHO, such programs are carried out because of economic concerns (if we don’t control mosquitoes, tourists will stay away) or from a nuisance standpoint (the Frankensteins are throwing a big outdoor party for the mayor, and don’t want to be bothered by mosquitoes...).
Also, sentiment aside, bats are not efficient predators of mosquitoes; they prefer much larger fare with a higher caloric content. The references one can find on the internet about bats consuming thousands of mosquitoes nightly appear based on laboratory experiments carried out many years ago, in which captive bats were caged with nothing but mosquitoes to prey upon.
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Old 07-04-2009, 11:25 AM   #17
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sunnto,

Do any of these programs specifically impact mosquitos? I had the impression that they were non-selective regarding all aquatic insect larva or flying insects currently active even though mosquitos were the target specie. It would certainly be a relief to know they were only impacting mosquitos. I have a concern that people will come to expect to walk outside and never have an insect buzzing out.
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Old 07-04-2009, 11:33 AM   #18
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double posted.
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Old 07-04-2009, 11:37 AM   #19
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Suunto,

Agreed, we also face risks from "automobile exhaust, tobacco smoke, and factory emissions", which is why I don't smoke and don't live downwind from a refinery. I do drive but try not to jog on busy roads.

Since you are an entomologist, I'd very interested in hearing your views on spraying programs'effects on insects--

1) Do spraying programs, when conducted in West-Nile positive areas only, reduce the incidence of West Nile? Is it effective?

2) Do spraying programs affect the number of insects or the relative frequency of certain insects in the sprayed areas? Is there collateral damage among insect populations?
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Old 07-04-2009, 11:48 AM   #20
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Quote:
Originally Posted by midwesternerr View Post
It's an epa metanalysis of available literature and is not light reading than can be done in a few minutes.
Midwesternerr, thanks for finding these studies on permethrin's effects on animal health. The one from the Journal of Mosquito Control is reassuring, though I wonder about the source. The meta-analysis report looks interesting too.
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