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Old 01-10-2010, 06:42 PM   #1
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bumblebee Effect of Temperature on Osmia lignaria

Effect of Temperature on Osmia lignaria (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) Prepupa–Adult Development, Survival, and Emergence
by W. P. Kempa and J. Bosch
Journal of Economic Entomology
Published by: Entomological Society of America

BioOne Online Journals - Effect of Temperature on Osmia lignaria (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) Prepupa?Adult Development, Survival, and Emergence
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Abstract
The solitary bee Osmia lignaria Say continues to be developed as an orchard pollinator in the United States and southern Canada. Female bees are active during the early spring and construct nests consisting of a linear series of unlined cells delimited by mud partitions. Cells are provisioned with a pollen/nectar mass on which an egg is deposited, and nests are sealed with a mud plug. In 1997, we initiated two experiments on the development, mortality, and emergence of O. lignaria at selected laboratory temperature regimes and outdoors. In the first experiment (published previously), we compared temperature treatments for their adequacy in maintaining healthy O. lignaria populations. In a second experiment (reported here), we determined the relationship between rearing temperatures and prepupa–adult development rates as well as emergence time and longevity after wintering and incubation the following spring. We observed important differences in O. lignaria prepupa versus pupa responses to selected temperature treatments. The relationship between temperature and days to pupa was U-shaped, with additional time to transit the prepupa–pupa interval at temperatures above and below 26°C. The negative relationship between temperature and the length of the pupa to adult interval contrasts with the U-shaped thermal response observed for prepupae. Thus, with each increase in thermal heat units over the range of temperature treatments tested, we observed an additional reduction in the pupa–adult interval. Individuals reared at constant 18°C required 2.4 times as many days to transit the pupa–adult interval compared with those at constant 32°C. Our results suggest that there is a need for the development of regionally adapted, latitude-specific breeding populations of this outstanding orchard crop pollinator.
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Old 02-14-2012, 04:53 PM   #2
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Default Effect of Temperature on Osmia lignaria (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) Prepupa–Adult Development, ...

The full text of the article cited in post #1 is now available:
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Regardless, of the ultimate physiological explanation for the evolution of the developmental variation observed in northerly versus southerly O. lignaria populations, the accumulating evidence for genotype-environment interactions in this species (Tauber and Tauber 1973, Tauber et al. 1986, Danks 1987, Hodek and Hodkova´ 1988, Mo´nzon 1998, Bosch et al. 2000) suggests the need for the development of latitude-specific breeding populations of this outstanding orchard crop pollinator (Nijhout 1999, Bosch and Kemp 2002, West-Eberhard 2003, Weinig and Schmitt 2004).
http://ddr.nal.usda.gov/bitstream/10113/1572/1/IND43769909.pdf
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