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Old 07-23-2009, 10:03 PM   #1
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butterfly Native Host Plants for a Midwest Butterfly Garden

Native Host Plants for a Midwest Butterfly Garden

Part 1



Matching up the native host plants with the butterflies in your area is often the most difficult part of planning a butterfly garden. The following information is a result of my efforts to design a butterfly garden for my area. I have added some butterflies and host plants that are not native to my area in order to make the list useful to more people. The original list was limited to those species of butterflies that I have seen/photographed in my yard. If these butterflies are in your area, and you provide nectar plants and the appropriate host plants, you should be able to attract these butterflies to your yard.


The list of butterflies in your state can be found here:
Map Search | Butterflies and Moths of North America

You can check to see if a plant is native to your state here:
Welcome to the PLANTS Database | USDA PLANTS


Butterflies and their native host plants

Pipevine Swallowtail (Battus philenor)
Additional Images | Butterflies and Moths of North America
Caterpillar hosts: Pipevines (Aristolochia macrophylla, Aristolochia serpentaria and Aristolochia tomentosa)

Zebra Swallowtail (Eurytides marcellus)
Additional Images | Butterflies and Moths of North America
Caterpillar hosts: Pawpaw (Asimina triloba)

Black Swallowtail (Papilio polyxenes)
Additional Images | Butterflies and Moths of North America
Caterpillar hosts: Alexanders - Heart-leaved golden alexander (Zizia aptera), Golden alexander (Zizia aurea), Yellow pimpernel (Taenidia integerrima), Sweet cicely (Osmorhiza claytonii), Rattlesnake master (Eryngium yuccifolium) and Angelica (Angelica atropurpurea)

Canadian Tiger Swallowtail (Papilio canadensis)
Canadian Tiger Swallowtail — wisconsinbutterflies.org
Caterpillar hosts: Leaves of various plants including Wild cherry (Prunus species), Birch (Betula species), Aspen (Populus species), and possibly American mountain ash (Sorbus americana) and Showy mountain ash (Sorbus decora)

Eastern Tiger Swallowtail (Papilio glaucus)
Additional Images | Butterflies and Moths of North America
Caterpillar hosts: Wild cherry (Prunus species), Magnolia or Cucumber tree (Magnolia species), Basswood (Tilia americana), Tulip tree (Liriodendron tulipifera), Birch (Betula species), Ash (Fraxinus species), Cottonwood (Populus species), American mountain ash (Sorbus americana), and Willow (Salix species).

Spicebush Swallowtail (Papilio troilus)
Additional Images | Butterflies and Moths of North America
Caterpillar hosts: Spicebush (Lindera benzoin) and Sassafras (Sassafras albidum)

Giant Swallowtail (Papilio cresphontes)
Additional Images | Butterflies and Moths of North America
Caterpillar hosts: Prickly ash (Zanthoxylum americanum) and Hoptree (Ptelea trifoliata)

Mustard White (Pieris napi)
Mustard White — wisconsinbutterflies.org
Caterpillar hosts: Rock Cress (Arabis species), Spring Cress (Cardamine species), Toothwort (Cardamine or Dentaria species)

Clouded Sulphur (Colias philodice)
Additional Images | Butterflies and Moths of North America
Caterpillar hosts: Milk vetch (Astragalus species), Wild indigo (Baptisia species), Wild senna (Senna marilandica and S. hebecarpa), Wild lupine (Lupinus perennis), and American vetch (Vicia americana)

Orange Sulphur (Colias eurytheme)
Additional Images | Butterflies and Moths of North America
Caterpillar hosts: Milk vetch (Astragalus species), Wild indigo (Baptisia species), Wild senna (Senna marilandica and S. hebecarpa), Wild lupine (Lupinus perennis), and American vetch (Vicia americana)

Coral Hairstreak (Satyrium titus)
Additional Images | Butterflies and Moths of North America
Caterpillar hosts: Wild cherry (Prunus species), American plum (Prunus americana), Canadian plum (Prunus nigra) and Chokecherry (Prunus virginiana)

Edwards’ Hairstreak (Satyrium edwardsii)
Additional Images | Butterflies and Moths of North America
Caterpillar hosts: Oaks (Quercus species)

Eastern Tailed-Blue (Everes comyntas)
Additional Images | Butterflies and Moths of North America
Caterpillar hosts: Legumes (Fabaceae) including Wild Lupines (Lupinus perennis), American and Carolina Vetch (Vicia americana and V. Caroliniana), Beach Pea (Lathyrus japonicus), White Pea (Lathyrus ochroleucus), Marsh Pea (Lathyrus palustris), Veiny Pea (Lathyrus venosus), and Tick Trefoils (Desmodium canadense, D. glutinosum, D. illinoense, D. nudiflorum) note: caterpillars overwinter in the seed pods

Karner Blue (Lycaeides melissa samuelis) (rare, endangered)
Additional Images | Butterflies and Moths of North America
Caterpillar hosts: Wild lupine (Lupinus perennis)

Spring Azure (Celastrina ladon)
Additional Images | Butterflies and Moths of North America
Caterpillar hosts: Flowers of Dogwoods (Cornus spp.), Viburnums (Viburnum spp.), New Jersey Tea (Ceanothus spp.), Blueberries (Vaccinium spp.), Meadowsweet (Spiraea alba) and Steeplebush (Spiraea tomentosa)

Monarch (Danaus plexippus)
Additional Images | Butterflies and Moths of North America
Caterpillar hosts: Milkweeds including Common milkweed (Asclepius syriaca), Swamp milkweed (A. incarnata), Poke milkweed (A. exaltata), Purple milkweed (A. purpurascens), Butterfly milkweed (A. Tuberosa), Prairie milkweed (Asclepias hirtella), Whorled milkweed (Asclepias verticillata) and Short green milkweed(A. viridiflora)

Variegated Fritillary (Euptoieta claudia)
Additional Images | Butterflies and Moths of North America
Caterpillar hosts: A variety of plants in several families including Maypops (Passiflora incarnata), Mayapple (Podophyllum peltata) and Violets (Viola species)

Great Spangled Fritillary (Speyeria cybele)
Additional Images | Butterflies and Moths of North America
Caterpillar hosts: Various Violet species (Viola species)

Aphrodite Fritillary (Speyeria aphrodite)
Additional Images | Butterflies and Moths of North America
Caterpillar hosts: Various violet species including Northern downy violet (Viola sagittata) and Lance-leaved violet (V. lanceolata)

Atlantis Fritillary (Speyeria atlantis)
Atlantis Fritillary — wisconsinbutterflies.org
Caterpillar hosts: Violets (Viola species)

Silver-bordered Fritillary (Boloria selene)
Silver-bordered Fritillary — wisconsinbutterflies.org
Caterpillar hosts: Violets including Northern bog violet (Viola nephrophylla)

Meadow Fritillary (Boloria bellona)
Meadow Fritillary — wisconsinbutterflies.org
Caterpillar hosts: Violets including Northern white violet (Viola pallens) and Woolly blue violet (V. sororia)

Silvery Checkerspot (Chlosyne nycteis)
Additional Images | Butterflies and Moths of North America
Caterpillar hosts: Many different composites including Black-eyed susan (Rudbeckia species), and Sunflowers (Helianthus species)

Harris' Checkerspot (Chlosyne harrisii)
Harris' Checkerspot — wisconsinbutterflies.org
Caterpillar hosts: Flat-topped white aster (Aster umbellatus)

Northern Crescent (Phyciodes cocyta)
Northern Crescent — wisconsinbutterflies.org
Caterpillar hosts: Asters (Asteraceae)

Baltimore (Euphydryas phaeton)
Additional Images | Butterflies and Moths of North America
Caterpillar hosts: Plants where eggs are laid and that caterpillars eat before hibernating are Turtlehead (Chelone glabra), Hairy beardtongue (Penstemon hirsutus) and False foxglove (Aureolaria species). After overwintering, caterpillars may continue to use these plants, but may also wander and feed on unrelated plants including Arrowwood (Viburnum recognitum), Canadian lousewort or Wood betony (Pedicularis canadensis), and White ash (Fraxinus americana)

Gray Comma (Polygonia progne)
Gray Comma — wisconsinbutterflies.org
Caterpillar hosts: American Black Currant (Ribes americanum), Skunk Currant (Ribes glandulosum), Canadian Black Currant (Ribes hudsonianum), Bristly Black Currant (Ribes lacustre), Swamp Red Currant (Ribes triste), Prickly Wild Gooseberry (Ribes cynosbati), Hairy Stem Gooseberry (Ribes hirtellum), Missouri Gooseberry (Ribes missouriense), and Canadian Gooseberry (Ribes oxyacanthoides)

Compton Tortoiseshell (Nymphalis vaualbum)
Compton Tortoiseshell — wisconsinbutterflies.org
Caterpillar hosts: Aspen and Cottonwood (Populus species), Willows (Salix species) and Paper birch or White birch (Betula papyrifera)

Mourning Cloak (Nymphalis antiopa)
Additional Images | Butterflies and Moths of North America
Caterpillar hosts: Willows including Black willow (Salix nigra), and Silky willow (S. sericea); also American elm (Ulmus americana), Cottonwood (Populus deltoides), Aspen (P. tremuloides), Paper birch (Betula papyrifera), and Hackberry (Celtis occidentalis)

Milbert's Tortoiseshell (Nymphalis milberti)
Milbert's Tortoiseshell — wisconsinbutterflies.org
Caterpillar hosts: Nettles (Urtica dioica and U. procera)

American Lady (Vanessa virginiensis)
American Lady — wisconsinbutterflies.org
Caterpillar hosts: Plants in the sunflower family: Sweet everlasting (Gnaphalium obtusifolium), Pearly everlasting (Anaphalis margaritacea), Plantain-leaved pussy toes (Antennaria plantaginifolia), and Ironweed (Vernonia fasciculata)

Painted Lady (Vanessa cardui)
Additional Images | Butterflies and Moths of North America
Caterpillar hosts: More than 100 host plants have been noted; favorites include Prairie thistle (Cirsium discolor) and Swamp thistle (Cirsium muticum). Others include Asters (Aster species), Boneset (Eupatorium perfoliatum), Joe pye weed (Eupatorium maculatum), Sneezeweed (Helenium autumnale), Sunflowers (Helianthus species), Liatris (Liatris species), Black eyed susan (Rudbeckia hirta and R. Subtomentosa), Cup plant and Compass plant (Silphium species), Goldenrods (Solidago species), Milk vetch (Astragalus species), Prairie clover (Dalea species or Petalostemon species), and Wild lupine (Lupinus perennis)

Red Admiral (Vanessa atalanta)
Red Admiral — wisconsinbutterflies.org
Caterpillar hosts: Plants of the nettle family (Urticaceae) including Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica), Tall wild nettle (U. gracilis), Wood nettle (Laportea canadensis), False nettle (Boehmeria cylindrica)

Common Buckeye (Junonia coenia)
Additional Images | Butterflies and Moths of North America
Caterpillar hosts: Blue toadflax (Linaria canadensis), American plantain, Black seeded plantain or Red stalked plantain (Plantago rugelii), Wild petunia ( Ruellia humilis), Blue vervain (Verbena hastata), Hoary vervain (Verbena stricta) and False foxgloves (Agalinis species or Gerardia species)

Red-spotted Purple (Limenitis arthemis astyanax)
Additional Images | Butterflies and Moths of North America
Caterpillar hosts: Leaves of many species of trees and shrubs including Wild cherry (Prunus species), Aspen and Cottonwood (Populus species), Oaks (Quercus species), Hawthorn (Crataegus species), Birch (Betula species), Willows (Salix species), Basswood (Tilia americana), and Shadbush or Serviceberry (Amelanchier species)

White Admiral (Limenitis arthemis arthemis)
Additional Images | Butterflies and Moths of North America
Caterpillar hosts: Leaves of many species of trees and shrubs including Wild cherry (Prunus species), Aspen and Cottonwood (Populus species), Oaks (Quercus species), Hawthorn (Crataegus species), Birch (Betula species), Willows (Salix species), Basswood (Tilia americana), and Shadbush or Serviceberry (Amelanchier species)

Viceroy (Limenitis archippus)
Additional Images | Butterflies and Moths of North America
Caterpillar hosts: Trees in the willow family (Salicaceae) including Willows (Salix species), and Poplars and Cottonwoods (Populus species)

Northern Pearly Eye (Enodia anthedon)
Northern Pearly-eye — wisconsinbutterflies.org
Caterpillar hosts: Various native grasses including White grass (Leersia virginica), Bearded shorthusk (Brachyelytrum erectum), and Bottlebrush grass (Elymus hystrix or hystrix patula)

Little Wood Satyr (Megisto cymela)
Little Wood-Satyr — wisconsinbutterflies.org
Caterpillar hosts: Various native grasses (Poaceae family)

Common Wood-Nymph (Cercyonis pegala)
Common Wood-Nymph — wisconsinbutterflies.org
Caterpillar hosts: Grasses including Big Bluestem (Andropogon gerardii), Grove Bluegrass (Poa alsodes), Fowl Bluegrass (Poa palustris), and Woodland Bluegrass (Poa saltuensis)

Tawny-edged Skipper (Polites themistocles)
Tawny-edged Skipper — wisconsinbutterflies.org
Caterpillar hosts: Grasses including Switch Grass (Panicum virgatum) and some Bluegrasses: Grove Bluegrass (Poa alsodes), Fowl Bluegrass (Poa palustris), and Woodland Bluegrass (Poa saltuensis)

Peck’s Skipper (Polites peckius)
Peck's Skipper — wisconsinbutterflies.org
Caterpillar hosts: Rice Cut Grass (Leersia oryzoides), and some Bluegrasses: Grove Bluegrass (Poa alsodes), Fowl Bluegrass (Poa palustris), and Woodland Bluegrass (Poa saltuensis)
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Old 07-23-2009, 10:03 PM   #2
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Native Host Plants for a Midwest Butterfly Garden

Part 2

A complete list of butterflies and their caterpillar host plants would be a very long list. Some butterflies, especially the skippers, use native grasses as host plants. Some butterflies use legumes (Fabaceae). A wide variety of native host plants will insure a wide variety of butterflies. Adding some of these native grasses and legumes to a butterfly garden will increase the number of butterfly species, as well as create a more natural habitat for all the butterflies. Some native grass and legume host plants include:

Lead Plant (Amorpha canescens) - (Fabaceae)
Big Bluestem (Andropogon gerardii)
Little Bluestem ( Andropogon scoparius, syn Schizachyrium scoparium)
Milk Vetch (Astragalus species) - (Fabaceae)
Side Oats Grama (Bouteloua curtipendula)
Hairy Grama (Bouteloua hirsuta)
Prairie Clovers (Dalea species or Petalostemon species) - (Fabaceae)
Canada Wild Rye (Elymus canadensis)
Bottlebrush Grass (Elymus hystrix or Hystrix patula)
Love grasses (Eragrostis species)
Manna grasses (Glyceria species)
Sweet Grass (Hierochloe hirta or Hierochloe odorata)
June Grass (Koeleria macrantha)
Wild Lupine (Lupinus perennis) - (Fabaceae)
Satin grasses (Native Muhlenbergia species)
Switch Grass (Panicum virgatum)
Indian Grass (Sorghastrum nutans)
Northern dropseed (Sporobolus heterolepis)


Some Native Nectaring Plants for Butterflies and Hummingbirds

A list of sources for theses plants can be found at:
North American Native Plant Nurseries- United States A-L
North American Native Plant Nurseries- United States M-Z
North American Native Plant Nurseries- CANADA

Be aware that when you buy host or nectar plants for butterflies from regular nurseries and garden centers, that residual insecticides may have been used by the commercial grower or seller. These can be deadly to caterpillars and may harm the adults. Always ask the seller to verify that no insecticides have been used on the plants at any time.

(Note: common names for plants vary from place to place, but the botanical names are the same everywhere)

Nodding Wild Onion (Allium cernuum)
Serviceberry (Amelanchier species)
Lead plant (Amorpha canescens)
False Indigo (Amorpha fruticosa)
Blue Giant or Anise Hyssop (Agastache foeniculum)
Purple Giant Hyssop (Agastache scrophulariaefolia)
Columbine (Aquilegia canadensis)
Milkweeds (Asclepias species)
Asters (Aster species)
Milk vetch (Astragalus species)
Tall bellflower (Campanula americana)
New Jersey tea (Ceanothus americanus)
Inland New Jersey tea (Ceanothus herbaceus/ovatus)
Buttonbush (Cephalanthus occidentalis)
Turtlehead (Chelone glabra)
Coreopsis (Coreopsis species)
Purple coneflowers (Echinacea species)
Joe Pye Weed (Eupatorium maculatum)
- A late summer favorite
Boneset (Eupatorium perfoliatum)
Early sunflower (Heliopsis helianthoides)
Orange Jewelweed (Impatiens capensis)
Yellow Jewelweed (Impatiens pallida)
Meadow blazing star (Liatris ligulistylis)
- perhaps the best Monarch nectaring plant
Blazing stars (Liatris species)
Cardinal Flower (Lobelia cardinalis)
- A hummingbird favorite
Great blue lobelia (Lobelia siphilitica)
Monkey Flower (Mimulus ringens)
Wild bergamot or Bee balm (Monarda fistulosa)
Beardtongues ( Penstemon species)
Prairie clovers (Dalea species or Petalostemon species)
Ninebark (Physocarpus opulifolius)
Phlox (Native Phlox species)
Wild Plum (Prunus americana)
Coneflowers (Ratibida species)
Wild roses (Native Rosa species)
Black eyed Susans (Rudbeckia species)
Fire pink (Silene virginica)
Compass plant and Cup plant (Silphium species)
Goldenrods (Solidago species)
White Meadowsweet (Spiraea alba)
Steeplebush (Spiraea tomentosa)
Spiderworts (Tradescantia species)
Blue vervain (Verbena hastata)
Hoary vervain (Verbena stricta)
Ironweed (Vernonia fasciculata)
Culver’s Rood (Veronicastrum virginicum)
Wild violets ( Native Viola species)
Golden alexanders (Zizia species)


For those butterflies that do not normally use flowers for nectar, a simple feeder can be constructed to attract them. A shallow container can be filled with overripe fruit (actually, rotting is best). Almost any fruit will work, but bananas, pears and grapes seem to work particularly well. The fruit can be kept moist by adding some fruit juice to the container. Overripe fruit will attract butterflies like the Mourning Cloak, Commas, Tortoiseshells, Admirals, Little Wood Satyr, Common Wood-Nymph and Red Spotted Purple. Tree sap, carrion and dung will also attract these butterflies.

Butterflies (especially the males) also need natural mineral salts in their diet. They get these mineral salts from moist ground. Making a puddle site will attract more butterflies to your yard. If you already have a consistently moist area in your yard, simply remove all the vegetation from a small portion of this area and the butterflies will use it for “puddling”. If you don’t have a moist area, you can create one by burying a water tight container or liner in a shallow hole. Fill the container with a mix of sand, gravel and soil until the surface is level with the rest of the ground. (Note: the butterflies need natural mineral salts, do not add table salt.) Add water until the mixture stays wet, but with little or no standing water.

Different butterfly species survive the cold winters in different ways. A few migrate, but most do not. Some overwinter as eggs, some as caterpillars, some as chrysalises and some as adults. Brush piles, wood piles, dead trees with loose bark and undisturbed mulch and grassy areas provide places for butterflies (eggs, caterpillars, chrysalises and adults) to spend the winter. Leaving some areas “untidy” can be very good for the butterflies. ‘Butterfly Houses’ can be nice yard ornaments, but they are not used by butterflies.

My thanks to Cirsium for helping to put these posts together. You can read Cirsium's article "The Complete Butterfly Garden" here:
The Complete Butterfly Garden
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Old 07-23-2009, 10:04 PM   #3
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Excellent information to have at our fingertips.
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Old 07-23-2009, 11:24 PM   #4
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Yowzer!!! Big fat thanks to you for all this information.
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Old 07-24-2009, 09:57 PM   #5
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Wonderfully informative thread. Good work.
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Old 07-24-2009, 10:29 PM   #6
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Thanks for this information-- I'll print it and save it for the next plant sale.
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Old 07-25-2009, 11:49 AM   #7
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We're currently working diligently to have a functional "Feature Articles" forum available within the next 30 days. Would you be willing to submit the above as an article?
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Old 07-25-2009, 03:18 PM   #8
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Thank you for the nice comments.

Staff:
Quote:
We're currently working diligently to have a functional "Feature Articles" forum available within the next 30 days. Would you be willing to submit the above as an article?
Yes, I could even add some photos of butterflies to dress it up a bit.

Another project that I would like to get involved in some time in the future would be to design an actual butterfly garden for one of our members. A member that is actually planning on making one. I could help on determining which butterflies are in their area and then determining the native host plants for those butterflies. I could also help with trying to come up with a list of native nectar plants that would have something in bloom from spring to fall. Another member with design skills could then try to put together a nice design. All being done, of course, in coordination with the member that would be building the butterfly garden.
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Old 07-25-2009, 03:33 PM   #9
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Quote:
Another project that I would like to get involved in some time in the future would be to design an actual butterfly garden for one of our members.
This is all good.
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Old 07-25-2009, 04:08 PM   #10
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NEWisc, when you publish your article on WG, would you please include a photo or two of the man made puddles you mentioned above?
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